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    ​Treatmen​t Types

    Each construction project is a little different. Depending on the condition of the road, the City assesses what construction treatment will best prolong the life of the road. Below is more information on each treatment type. 
     
    ​Cape Sealing
    Cape sealing (also known as seal coat and microsurfacing) is a treatment that places a new surface over an existing asphalt street to preserve the street. The treatment is completed in three phases:
    1. City crews patch potholes and repair distressed or damaged areas of the street and then sweep the entire street. 
    2. Contractors will apply an asphalt and stone chip microsurface, known as chip seal. This typically takes one day. The chip seal is then allowed to sit for one to two weeks to cure and harden. During this time the street may be driven on at low speeds.
    3. The street will be swept and a final layer is applied to seal the stones and provide a smooth surface. This typically takes one day. Residents are asked not to drive on the new material until it has dried and hardened, which can take several hours and is dependent on weather.
    Prior to the start of steps 2 and 3, the contractor is required to notify residents and place no parking signs along the street a minimum of 24 hours in advance.


    Crack Sealing
    Crack sealing (also known as overbanding) is a process that involves placing a 3-inch wide seal over a visible crack in the road surface to keep as much water out of the subgrade as possible. Stress cracks can appear as soon as one year after a street is repaved, which is not unusual for the type of environment we experience in the Great Lakes region. This method does not provide any structural improvement to the pavement.


    Temporary Paving
    Temporary paving (also known as wedging or hot asphalt overlay) involves placing hot asphalt over badly fatigued areas that are failing and prone to potholes, over only the driving lanes, or over the entire street. 
    1. Crews will patch any potholes.
    2. Manhole covers are adjusted to be level with the road.
    3. Hot asphalt material is placed over badly fatigued areas, over the driving lanes, or over the entire road.
    This application is intended to limit pothole development and hold the road together until more significant work can be completed. When applied curb to curb, temporary paving can hold a street together for approximately 7 to 10 years.


    Resurfacing
    Rotomilling and resurfacing (also known as mill and fill) is a road rehabilitation process that extends the road life and prevents costlier reconstruction. During construction, the contractors will:
    1. Upgrade sidewalks and ramps to be compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
    2. Use a milling machine to remove and grind the road surface with a conveyor system loading debris into trucks. Rotomilling is noisy but typically only lasts one day.
    3. Adjust manholes to be level with the road.
    4. Pave the road with one or more layers of asphalt.
    5. Restore disturbed areas with grass.

    Reconstruction
    Reconstruction takes place when the road is failing or when underground utilities, such as water and sewer, need to be replaced. Full reconstruction involves removing and replacing the street, including the structural subbase, curb and gutter, and sometimes the sidewalk. Typically, reconstruction projects are timed to align with underground utility replacement. Partial reconstruction may involve removing and replacing only the street (between the curbs).


     Cape seal in progress. 
     

    ​ Completed crack seal.

      Completed​ temporary paving.
     
     
    Resurfacing in progress.


    Completed resurfacing.


    Reconstruction in progress.